Self-reported provision of person-centred maternity care among providers in Kenya and Ghana: scale validation and examination of associated factors

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Introduction Person-centred maternity care (PCMC), which refers to care that is respectful and responsive to women’s preferences needs, and values, is core to high-quality maternal and child health. Provider-reported PCMC provision is a potentially valid means of assessing the extent of PCMC and contributing factors. Our objectives are to assess the psychometric properties of a provider-reported PCMC scale, and to examine levels and factors associated with PCMC provision.

Methods We used data from two cross-sectional surveys with 236 maternity care providers from Ghana (n=150) and Kenya (n=86). Analysis included factor analysis to assess construct validity and Cronbach’s alpha to assess internal consistency of the scale; descriptive analysis to assess extent of PCMC and bivariate and multivariable linear regression to examine factors associated with PCMC.

Findings The 9-item provider-reported PCMC scale has high construct validity and reliability representing a unidimensional scale with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.72. The average standardised PCMC score for the combined sample was 66.8 (SD: 14.7). PCMC decreased with increasing report of stress and burnout. Compared with providers with no burnout, providers with burnout had lower average PCMC scores (β: −7.30, 95% CI:−11.19 to –3.40 for low burnout and β: −10.86, 95% CI: −17.21 to –4.51 for high burnout). Burnout accounted for over half of the effect of perceived stress on PCMC.

Conclusion The provider PCMC scale is a valid and reliable measure of provider self-reported PCMC and highlights inadequate provision of PCMC in Kenya and Ghana. Provider burnout is a key driver of poor PCMC that needs to be addressed to improve PCMC.

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